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শিক্ষার অধোগতিঃ জ্ঞান ও শিক্ষা থেকে ফটোকপিয়ার
December 11, 2013

Exclusion and Initiatives to ‘Include’: Revisiting Basic Economics to Guide Development Practice

Sajjad Zohir
Publisher: Springer

The paper reconstructs the definition of exclusion and its various facets by applying a set of principles that underlie economic analyses. The analysis reveals that many initiatives to reduce exclusion under the umbrella of safety nets often lead to the introduction of differentiated products in segmented markets that may actually contribute to the perpetuation of differentiations within a population. The relations between contracts, goods and services, and exclusions are highlighted. The idea developed from an earlier work with a group of colleagues under an ERG-Brac (RED) collaboration.

This chapter focuses on exclusion. It reconstructs the definition of exclusion and its various facets by applying a set of principles that underlie economic analyses. The analysis reveals that many initiatives to reduce exclusion under the umbrella of safety nets often lead to the introduction of differentiated products in segmented markets that may actually contribute to the perpetuation of differentiation within a population. The relations between contracts, goods and services, and exclusions are highlighted. A typology of exclusion is described by the author with the help of a supply and demand analysis of services, including: voluntary exclusion, exclusion due to a lack of awareness, exclusion for survival, exclusion due to a lack of demand, and exclusion caused by “distance” such as social exclusion or poor connectivity.

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